Signal Recovery- Dual Phase DSP Lock-in Amplifier (Model: 7265)

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The SIGNAL RECOVERY model 7265 uses the latest digital signal processing (DSP) technology to extend the operating capabilities of the lock-in amplifier to provide the researcher with a very versatile unit suitable both for measurement and control of experiments. At the same time due consideration has been given to the needs of those users wishing only to make a simple measurement quickly and easily.

Operating over a frequency range of 1 mHz to 250 kHz, the model 7265 offers full-scale
voltage sensitivities down to 2 nV and current sensitivities to 2 fA. The instrument has a
choice of operating modes, signal recovery or vector voltmeter, for optimum measurement accuracy under different conditions, and the use of DSP techniques ensures exceptional performance.

The instrument performs all of the normal measurements of a dual phase lock-in amplifier, measuring the in-phase and quadrature components, vector magnitude, phase angle and noise of the input signal.

Several novel modes of operation are also include to give greater levels of versatility than ever before, for example:

Virtual Reference
Under suitable conditions, this mode allows measurements to be made in the absence of a reference signal

Dual Reference
In this mode the instrument can make simultaneous measurements on two signals at different reference frequencies, which is ideal, for example, for use in source compensated optical experiments

Spectral Display
This allows the spectrum of the signals present at the input to be calculated and displayed, which can help when choosing the reference frequency

Transient Recorder
In this mode, the auxiliary ADC inputs can be used as a 40 kSa/s (25 μs/point) transient recorder, with the captured transient being displayed graphically

Frequency Response
This built-in experiment allows the internal oscillator frequency to be swept between preset frequencies, while simultaneously measuring the input signal magnitude and phase. The mode is ideal for determining the frequency and phase response of external networks.

Harmonic Analysis
Most lock-in amplifiers will measure signals at the applied reference frequency or its second harmonic. In the 7265, operation is possible at harmonics up the 65,536th, and in Dual Harmonic mode, simultaneous measurements can be made on two harmonics.

  • 1m Hz to 250 kHz operation
  • Direct digital demodulation without down-conversion
  • 10 µs to 100 ks output time constants
  • Synchronous oscillator output for input offset reduction
  • Dual Reference, Dual Harmonic and Virtual Reference modes
  • Spectral display mode
  • Scanned probe microscopy
  • Optical measurements
  • Audio studies
  • AC impedance studies
  • Atomic force microscopy

The SIGNAL RECOVERY model 7265 uses the latest digital signal processing (DSP) technology to extend the operating capabilities of the lock-in amplifier to provide the researcher with a very versatile unit suitable both for measurement and control of experiments.

Dual-phase DSP lock-in amplifier operating over a reference frequency range of 0.001 Hz to 250 kHz.

Wide range of extended measuring modes and auxiliary inputs and outputs.

User-upgradeable firmware.

Measurements Modes
The instrument can simultaneously show any four of these outputs on the front panel display:
   X        In-phase
   Y        Quadrature
   R        Magnitude
   ø        Phase Angle
Harmonic nF, n ≤ 65, 536
Dual Harmonic
   Simultaneously measures the signal at
   two different harmonics F1 and F2 of the
   reference frequency
Dual Reference
   Simultaneously measures the signal at
   two different reference frequencies, F1
   F2 where F1 is the external and F2 the
   internal reference
Frequency Range for Dual Harmonic and Dual Reference Modes F1 and F2 ≤ 20 kHz
Virtual Reference
   Locks to and detects a signal without a
   reference (100 Hz ≤ F ≤ 250 kHz)
   Measures noise in a given bandwidth
   centered at the reference frequency F
Spectral Display
   Gives a visual indication of the spectral
   power distribution of the input signal in a
   user-selected frequency range lying
   between 1 Hz and 60 kHz.  Note that
   although the display is calibrated in
   terms  of frequency, it is not calibrated
   for amplitude.  Hence it is only intended
   to assist in choosing the optimum
   reference frequency
240 x 64 pixel cold fluorescent backlit
   LCD panel giving digital, analog bar-
   graph and graphical indication of
   measured signals.  Menu system with
   dynamic key function allocation.  On-
   screen context sensitive help
Signal Channel
Voltage Input
A only, -B only or Differential (A-B)
   Full-scale Sensitivity 2 nV to 1 V in a 1-2-5 sequence
   Max. Dynamic Reserve > 100 dB
     FET Input
     Bipolar Input
10 MΩ // 30 pF
10 kΩ // 30 pF
   Maximum Safe Input 20 V pk-pk
   Voltage Noise
     FET Input
     Bipolar Input
5 nV/√Hz @ 1 kHz
2 nV/√Hz @ 1 khZ
   C.M.R.R. > 100 dB @ 1 kHz
Frequency Response 0.001 Hz to 250 kHz
Gain Accuracy ±0.2% typ
Distortion -90 dB THD (60 dB AC gain, 1 khZ)
Line Filter attenuates 50, 60, 100, 120 Hz
Grounding BNC shields can be grounded or floated via 1 kΩ to ground
Current Input
   Mode Low Noise or Wide Bandwidth
   Full-scale Sensitivity
     Low Noise
     Wide Bandwidth
2fA to 10 nA in a 1-2-5 sequence
2 fA to 1 µA in a 1-2-5 sequence
   Max. Dynamic Reserve > 100 dB
   Frequency Response (-3 dB)
      Low Noise
      Wide Bandwidth
> 500 Hz
≥ 50 kHz
      Low Noise
      Wide Bandwidth
< 2.5 kΩ ! 100 Hz
<250 Ω @ 1 kHz
      Low Noise
      Wide Bandwidth
13 fA/√Hz @ 500 Hz
1.3 pA/√Hz @ 1 kHz
   Gain Accuracy ± 0.6% typ, midband
   Line Filter attenuates 50, 60, 100, 120 Hz
   Grounding BNC shield can be grounded or floated via 1 kΩ to ground-
Reference Channel
TTL input (rear panel)
   Frequency Range
0.001 Hz to 250 kHz
Analog Input (front panel)
   Sinusoidal input
     Frequency Range
   Squarewave input
   Frequency Range
1 MΩ // 30 pF

1.0 V rms*
0.3 Hz to 250 kHz

250 mV rms*
2 Hz to 250 kHz

*Note: Lower levels can be used with the analog input at the expense of increased phase errors
Phase Set Resolution 0.001º increments
Phase Noise at 100 ms TC, 12 dB/octave slope
   Internal Reference
   External Reference

< 0.001º rms
<0.01º rms @ 1 kHz

Orthogonality 90º ±0.001º
Acquistion Time
   Internal Reference
instantaneous acquisition
   External Reference 2 cycles + 50 ms
Reference Frequency Meter Resolution 1 ppm or 1 mHz, whichever is the greater
Demodulator and Output Processing
Output Zero Stability
   Digital Outputs
   Analog Outputs
No zero drift on all settings
No zero drift on all settings
< 5 ppm/ºC
Harmonic Rejection -90 dB
Output Filters
   X, Y and R outputs only
     Time Constant

     Slope (roll-off)
   All outputs
     Time Constant

10 µs to 640 µs in a binary sequence

6 dB/octave

5 ms to 100 ks in a 1-2-5 sequence
6, 12, 18 and 24 dB/octave

Synchronous Filter Available for F < 20 Hz
Offset Auto and Manual on X and/or Y: ±300% full-scale
Absolute Phase Measurement Accuracy ≤0.01º
   Setting Resolution
     1 mHz ≤ F ≤ 900 Hz
     F . 900 Hz
   Absolute Accuracy
0.001 Hz to 250 kHz

1 mHz
4 mHz
± 50 ppm

Distortion (THD) -80 dB @ 1 kHz and 100 mV rms
Amplitude (rms)
     1µV to 4 mV
     4 mV to 500 mV
     500 mV to 2 V
     2 V to 5 V
     > 1 mV
     100 µV – 1 mV
1 µV to 5 V rms
125 µV
500 µV
1.25 mV

±0.3%, F ≤ 60 kHz, ±0.5%, F > 60 kHz
±1%, F ≤ 60 kHz, ±3%, F > 60 kHz
50 ppm/ºC

Output Impedance
   Amplitude Sweep
     Output Range
     Step Rate

0.001 to 5.000 V rms
20 Hz maximum (50 ms/step)

Frequency Sweep
   Output Range
   Step Rate
0.001 Hz to 250 kHz
Linear or Logarithmic
20 Hz maximum (50 ms/step)
Auxiliary Inputs
ADC 1 & 2
   Maximum input
   Input Impedance
   Smple Rate
     ADC 1 only
     ADC 1 and 2
   Trigger Mode
   Trigger Input
±10 V
1 mV
±20 mV
1 MΩ // 30 pF

40 kHz max.
17.8 kHz max.
Internal, External or burst
TTL compatible

   Maximum input
   Input Impedance
   Sampling Time
±10 V
12 to 20 bit, depending on sampling time
1 MΩ // 30 pF
10 ms to 2 s, variable
Fast Outputs

   Update Rate

X and Y or X and Mag
±2.5 V full-scale; linear to ±300% full-scale

1 kΩ
166 kHz

Main Analog (CH1 and CH2) Outputs


   Update Rate

X, Y, R, ø, Noise, Ratio, Log Ratio and User Equations 1 & 2.
±10.0 V full-scale; linear to ±120% full-scale

1 kΩ
200 Hz

Signal Monitor
±10 V FS
1 kΩ
Auxiliary D/A Outputs 1, 2, 3 and 4
   Maximum Output
   Output Impedance
±10 V
1 mV
±10 mV
1 kΩ
8-bit Digital Output Port
   8 TTL-compatible lines that can be independently
   set high or low to activate exteranl equipment
Reference Output
0 to 5 V rectangluar wave
Power – Low Voltage ±15 V at 100 mA rear panel 5-pin 180º DIN connector for powering SIGNAL RECOVERY preamplifiers
Data Storage Buffer

   Max Storage Rate
     From LIA
     From ADC1

32k x 16-bit data points, may be organized as 1x32k, 2x16k, 3×10.6k, 4x8k, etc.

up to 1000 16-bit values per second
up to 40,000 16-bit values per second

User Settings
Up to 8 complete instrument settings can
   be saved or recalled from non-volatile
RS232 and GPIB (IEEE-488).  A second
   RS232 port is provided to allow "daisy-
   chain" connection and control of up to 16
   compatible instruments from a single
   RS232 computer port
Power Requirements

110/120/220/240 VAC
50/60 Hz
40 VA max

     With feet
     Without feet
13¼" (350 mm)
16½" (415 mm)

4¼" (105 mm)
3½" (90 mm)

Weight 18 lb (8.1 kg)

Resource & Download

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